Brighton scientists have invented a tractor beam, turning a staple of science fiction into a reality.
The concept, familiar to fans of Star Wars and Star Trek, enables objects to be moved from a distance.
And it could reap benefits in microcircuitry and medicine, for example, allowing microsurgery or the more accurate delivery of drugs inside the body.
Researchers at Sussex University have been working on the world’s first sonic tractor beam that can lift and move objects using soundwaves with colleagues from Bristol University and high-tech firm Ultrahaptics.
Sussex University said: “Tractor beams are mysterious rays that can grab and lift objects. The concept was created by science-fiction writers but has since come to fascinate scientists and engineers.
“Researchers … have now built a working tractor beam that uses high-amplitude soundwaves to generate an acoustic hologram that can pick up and move small objects.
“The technique, published in Nature Communications today (Tuesday 27 October), could be developed for a wide range of applications.
“For example, a sonic production line could transport delicate objects and assemble them, all without physical contact.
“Or a miniature version could grip and transport drug capsules or microsurgical instruments through living tissue.”
Sriram Subramanian, professor of informatics at Sussex and co-founder of Ultrahaptics, said: “In our device we manipulate objects in mid-air and seemingly defy gravity.
“We can individually control dozens of loudspeakers to tell us an optimal solution to generate an acoustic hologram that can manipulate multiple objects in real time without contact.”
Sussex University said: “The researchers used an array of 64 miniature loudspeakers (driven at 40Khz with 15Vpp – the whole system consumes 9 watts of power) to create high-pitched and high-intensity sound waves to levitate a spherical bead (of up to 4mm in diameter) made of expanded polystyrene.
“The tractor beam works by surrounding the object with high-intensity sound to create a force field that keeps the objects in place.
“By carefully controlling the output of the loudspeakers, the object can be held in place, moved or rotated.”
PhD student and lead author Asier Marzo said: “It was an incredible experience the first time we saw the object held in place by the tractor beam. All my hard work has paid off. It’s brilliant.”
Bruce Drinkwater, professor of ultrasonics in Bristol University’s Department of Mechanical Engineering, said: “We all know that soundwaves can have a physical effect. But here we have managed to control the sound to a degree never previously achieved.”
Sussex University said: “The team have shown that three different shapes of acoustic force fields work as tractor beams.
“The first is an acoustic force field that resembles a pair of fingers or tweezers. The second is an acoustic vortex, the objects becoming trapped at the core. And the third is best described as a high-intensity cage that surrounds the objects and holds them in place from all directions.
“Previous work on acoustic studies had to surround the object with loudspeakers, which limits the extent of movement and restricts many applications.
“Last year the University of Dundee presented the concept of a tractor beam but no objects were held in the ray.
“The team is now designing different variations of this system – a bigger version with a different working principle that aims at levitating a soccer ball from 10 metres away and a smaller version, targeted at manipulating particles inside the human body.”
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